The most ancient acropolis of the city was populated, had three levels and a fort on each level. The rocky peninsula of Acronafplia was the fortified settlement of Nafplio from ancient times until the end of the 15th century. A prehistoric settlement was discovered on it, while at its western section, parts of the ancient polygonal walls that date back to the end of the 4th century BCE survive until today. Remnants of the Hellenistic and Byzantine walls are also preserved.
In 1210-1212, when the Franks occupied the city, they divided Acronafplia in two sections, with inner wards that were called castles: the "Romeiko" and "Franks'". The gate of the Franks' castle bore decoration with interesting frescoes and was made famous as "Gate of Peace". The Venetians built the "Castle of Toros" with the five cannons or "the five brothers" as they are still known.
In the years of the Turkish reign, Acronafplia was called "Itch Kale", meaning the interior castle. Here simple people lived, Turks and Christians, as the homes of the officials had been concentrated in the city underneath. Acronafplia was also destined for soldiers. In 1829, Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias erected a large garrison and an Army Hospital. In the years that followed, the garrison was converted into civil prisons that were operating until 1960. From then on, Acronafplia with beautiful beaches sprawled out in front of it, bustles with tourists and is now considered to be one of the most touristic spots of Nafplio. In 1970, in order to build the hotel "Xenia Pallas", an important part of the walls and the buildings of the Romeiko castle were knocked down.