The archaeological evidence along with ancient sources such as the great biographer Plutarch, indicate that the area was initially inhabited in the late 8th century BC, by the Eretrians of Euboea. Shortly, they were expelled by the Corinthians in 734 BC. It was a period which powerful Greek cities organized expedition in order to establish colonies in the West. The area of Paleopolis seems that was the ideal place of residence as it was enclosed by two natural ports. Paleopolis’ gradual abandonment began in the 6th century A.D. which was followed by the relocation of the settlement to the area of the present Old Fortress.
The first excavations of the site started in 1812 when the island was under the French occupation. Since then, Greek and foreign excavators reveled the cultural wealth of the site. Most of Paleopolis monuments are liberally scattered in the area and they represent a wide time range from Archaic to late Christian’s periods. The most distinctive are: the ancient Agora, an economic, political, religious and administrative center, two bath complexes of Roman period, parts of the two famous ports (the port of Alkinoos and the Hyllaikos port), ruins of the ancient city walls with a fortification tower (the tower of Neranzicha) dated to the Classical period and the latter addition of a byzantine church, the Archaic temple of Artemis-Gorgon (580 BC), the monument of Menecrates (6th c. B.C) and the Early Byzantine basilica dated back to the 5th c. AC.
Moreover, the excavations have brought to light significant art objects and everyday artifacts that are displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Paleopolis which housed in Mon Repos Palace.